Despite of the well-known love of the Prophet (PBUH) for Lady Fatima (AS) and his sayings about her merits, she went through very rough days after the demise of the Prophet (AS) which finally led to her martyrdom.
Her father’s demise, oppressing her husband, denying her right and most importantly, the events took place after the Prophet’s demise, hurt her soul and her body. According to historical records, she did not suffer any illnesses before the demise of her father. She got ill after these events, though.
About her martyrdom, Abu Basir narrates from Imam al-Sadiq (AS) that, ‘Umar ordered his slave, Qunfudh to hit her with a sheath, and that caused miscarriage of her unborn son, al-Muhsin. After that, she got very sick which led to her martyrdom afterward.
Moreover, Shia and Sunni narrations have mentioned ‘Umar’s threat of setting fire to her house, pushing her against the wall by the door, hitting her by the door, breaking her ribs, and kicking her stomach, each of which could have cause her martyrdom.
Date of Martyrdom
There is a consensus among Shia and Sunni historical sources that Lady Fatima (AS) was martyred in the year 11/632; but there are various reports about the month and the day. The reports varies between 24 days to 8 months after the Prophet’s demise. Majority of Shia believe that she lived 95 days after the Prophet (PBUH). According to this she was martyred on Jumada II 3/August 29 -95 days after Safar 28/May 28, the day of the Prophet’s demise.
Considering different reports about her birthday, there are different opinions about her life time, ranging from 18 to 35 years. According to two authentic hadiths from Imam al-Baqir (AS) and Imam al-Sadiq (AS) that she lived 18 years, she must have been born in Jumada II, 5 years after Bi’tha (March 26, 615).
Shia scholars unanimously believe that Lady Fatima’s (AS) body was buried at night.
Al-Ya’qubi says in his history book that Lady Fatima (AS) was buried at night and no one except Salman, Abu Dhar and -according to a report- Ammar participated in her funeral and burial. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has narrated a hadith that when al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib suggested a respectful funeral for her, Imam Ali (AS) told him that Fatima had made a will to be buried privately and secretly.
Ibn Sa’d, a Sunni scholar and historian, has narrated hadiths that Fatima was buried at night by Ali (AS). Baladhuri, also, reported this in two hadiths about the event. Bukhari also, writes, “Her husband buried her at night and did not let Abu Bakr to attend her funeral.”